Customer empowerment, customer satisfaction, retail, Big Five Personality Dimensions


Big Five Personality Dimensions are considered important to understand how consumers behave and tend to prioritize aspects in a retail business environment. This research provides evidence of how the Big Five Personality Traits, including Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness, are positively correlated to Customer Empowerment or a “state of empowerment” perception, and how dimensions of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism have a significant relationship with a State of Empowerment promoted among consumers. For such purpose, this research uses a multiple regression analysis and data of consumers around the world who have experienced face-to-face interactions in the retail industry.

Full Text : PDF

  1. Adams, J., Khan, H.T.A., &Raeside, R. (2007, August).  Research Methods for Graduate Business and Social Science Students. New Delhi, India: Sage India.
  2. Allik, J. (2005). Personality Dimensions Across Cultures, Journal of Personality Disorders, 19(3), 212-232. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from
  3. American Psychological Association (2014). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from
  4. Anitsal, M.M., &Anitsal, I. (2009). Impact of Customers’ Personality Traits in Retail Environments, Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 8(1), 39-50. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from EBSCO Research Database.
  5. Brennan, C., &Coppack, M. (2008).  Consumer Empowerment: Global Context, UK Strategies and Vulnerable Consumers, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32(1), 306-313. Retrieved August 18, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  6. Broderick, A.J., Demangeot, C., Adkins, N.R., Ferguson, N.S., Henderson, G.R., Johnson, G., Kipnis, E., Mandiberg, J.M., Mueller, R.D., Pullig, C., Roy, A., & Zúñiga, M.A. (2011).  Consumer Empowerment in Multicultural Marketplaces: Navigating Multicultural Identities to Reduce Consumer Vulnerability, Journal of Research for Consumers, 19(1), 1-13. Retrieved August 21, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  7. Castillo, J. (2015, March). Impact of Customer Empowerment on Customer Satisfaction in the Retail Industry, Dissertation SMC University, 1-150. 
  8. Creswell, J.W. (2013, March).  Research Design. Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approach (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
  9. Deloitte (2014). Global Powers of Retailing 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2014, from
  11. Di Mascio, R. (2010, July).  The Service Models of Frontline Employees, Journal of Marketing, 74(1), 63-80. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  12. EBSCO Industries, Inc. (2014). EBSCOhost. Retrieved August 27, 2013, from
  14. Facebook (2014). Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved May 27, 2014, from
  16. Fuchs, C., Prandelli, E., &Schreier, M. (2010, January).  The Psychological Effects of Empowerment Strategies on Consumers’ Product Demand, Journal of Marketing, 74(1), 65-79. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from EBSCO Research Database.
  17. Graziano , J.E., & Flanagan, P.J. (2005, January).  Explore The Art of Consultative Selling, Journal of Accountancy, 199(1), 34-37. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from EBSCO Research Database.
  18. Grewal, D., Krishnan, R., & Lindsey-Mullikin, J. (2008).  Building Store Loyalty Through Service Strategies, Journal of Relationship Marketing, 7(4), 341-358. Retrieved September 24, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  19. Heine, S.J.,Buchtel, E.E., &Norenzayan, A. (2008). What Do Cross-National Comparisons of Personality Traits Tell Us?,Association for Psychological Science, 19(4), 309-313. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from
  20. Hennig-Thurau, T. (2004).  Customer Orientation of Service Employees.  International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(5), 460-478. Retrieved July 18, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  21. Hunter, G.L., &Garnefeld, I. (2008).  When Does Consumer Empowerment Lead to Satisfied Customers? Some Mediating and Moderating Effects of the Empowerment-Satisfaction Link, Journal of Research for Consumers, 15(1), 1-14. Retrieved August 1, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  22. International Markets Bureau. (2011, December). Market Indicator Report. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.  Retrieved November 3, 2013, from
  23. IMAP Inc. (2010). Retail Industry Global Report – 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2013, from
  24. Ivanauskienė, N., Auruškevičienė, V., Škudienė, V., &Nedzinskas, Š. (2012).  Customer Perceptions of Value: Case of Retail Banking, Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, 3(1), 75-88. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from EBSCO Research Database.
  25. Kim, J.H., Kim, M., & Nam, Y. (2010).  An Analysis of Self-Construals, Motivations, Facebook Use, and User Satisfaction, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 26(11-12), 1077-1099. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from EBSCO Research Database.
  26. Kotni, D.P. (2011, October).  Impact of Retail Services on Retail Sales.  Journal of the Academy of Business and Retail Management, 6(1), 73-81. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  27. KPMG (2013). 2013 Retail Industry Outlook Survey. Retrieved November 26, 2014, from
  28. Likert, R. (1932, June).  A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes.  Archives of Psychology, 22(1932-33), 5-55. 
  29. LimeSurvey Project Team, & Schmitz, C. (2014). LimeSurvey: An Open Source survey tool / LimeSurvey Project Hamburg, Germany. Retrieved May 27, 2014, from
  30. Lui, A.H., & Leach, M.P. (2001, Spring).  Developing Loyal Customers with a Value-adding Sales Force: Examining Customer Satisfaction and the Perceived Credibility of Consultative Salespeople, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 21(2), 147-156. Retrieved October 21, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  31. Miller, G. (2009).  SPENT. Sex, Evolution, and Consumer Behavior. New York, NY: Viking.
  32. Mulyanegara, R.C., Tsarenko, Y., & Anderson, A. (2009).  The Big Five and Bran Personality: Investigating the Impact of Consumer Personality on Preferences Towards Particular Brand Personality, Brand Management, 16(4), 234-247. Retrieved October 24, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  33. Muyeed, A. (2012, February).  Customer Perception on Service Quality in Retail Banking in Developing Countries - A Case Study.  International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(1) 116-122. Retrieved July 18, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  34. Palokangas, L. (2010, April). Measuring the Willingness to Purchase Using Methods of Neuromarketing. Retrieved from
  35. Pranic, L., & Roehl, W.S. (2012).  Rethinking Service Recovery: A Customer Empowerment (CE) Perspective, Journal of Business Economics and Management, 13(2), 242-260. Retrieved August 1, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  36. Rammstedt, B., & John, O.P. (2007).  Measuring Personality in One Minute or Less: A 10-item Short Version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German, Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 203-212. Retrieved August 15, 2013, 
  37. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2006.02.001
  38. Sainy, R. (2010, September).  A Study of the Effect of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty in Retail Outlets, Journal of Management, 7(2), 49-62. Retrieved August 19, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  39. Schultz, D.E., Block, M.P., &Labrecque, L.I. (2012, Spring).  Consumer Retailer Preference and Facebook: Friends or Foes?,International Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 4(1), 7-18. Retrieved July 15, 2014, from EBSCO Research Database.
  40. Schmitt, D.P.,Allik, J., McCrae, R.R.,& Benet-Martínez, V., I. (2007, March). The Geographic Distribution of Big Five Personality Traits, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(2), 173-212. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from 
  42. Specht, J.,Egloff, B., &Schmukle, S.C. (2011). Stability and Change of Personality Across the Life Course:  The Impact of Age and Major Life Events on Mean-Level and Rank-Order Stability of the Big Five, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(4), 862-882. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from
  43. Sullivan, C., &Cottone, R. (2010, Summer).  Emergent Characteristics of Effective Cross-Cultural Research:  A Review of the Literature, Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(3), 357-362. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from EBSCO Research Database.
  44. Suomala, J., Palokangas, L., Leminen, S., Westerlund, M., Heinonen, J., &Numminen, J. (2012, December).  Neuromarketing: Understanding Customers’ Subconscious Responses to Marketing, Technology Innovation Management Review, 1(1), 12-21. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from  December2012.pdf
  45. Thenmozhi, S.P., &Dhanapal, D. (2010, February).  Retail Service Quality - A Customer Perception Analysis, Global Management Review, 4(2), 1-6. Retrieved July 19, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  46. WEBNet77 (2014). Multiple IP Address Lookup. Retrieved May 27, 2014, from 
  48. Whaley, R.E. (2006).  Derivatives: Markets, Valuation, and Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  49. Wicks, A.M., &Roethlein, C.J. (2009, Spring).  A Satisfaction-Based Definition of Quality, Journal of Business & Economic Studies, 15(1), 82-97. Retrieved August 19, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  50. Yang, T. (2012, Spring).  The Decision Behavior of Facebook Users, Journal of Computer Information Systems, 52(3), 50-59. Retrieved July 15, 2014, from EBSCO Research Database.
  51. Yuen, E.F.T., & Chan, S.S.L. (2010, September-December).  The Effect of Retail Service Quality and Product Quality on Customer Loyalty, Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 17(3/4), 222-240. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.
  52. Žabkar, V., & Kolar, T. (2010).  Consumers in Slovenia: Values, Personality Types and Consumerist Attitudes, Trziste / Market, 2(1), 205-222. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from EBSCO Research Database.