Brand Engagement, Online Brand Experience, Satisfaction, Loyalty, Trust, Egypt.


This study measures the impact of customer brand engagement (CBE) on brand satisfaction, loyalty, and trust through the online brand experience in the Egyptian banking sector based on the customers’ perspective. Electronic questionnaires were developed to collect data. Data collected from 392 questionnaires was analyzed by means of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Findings indicated that CBE has a significant positive impact on brand satisfaction, trust, and loyalty respectively via the online brand experience. This study contributes to knowledge development by focusing on the importance of CBE and its consequences in the online service sector, which is still uncovered. Besides, this study offers guidelines to the service providers with valuable meanings for CBE to enhance brand’s satisfaction, trust and loyalty via developing a unique online brand experience particularly in the Egyptian banking sector, which is witnessing now a new era of digital transformation.

Full Text : PDF


Algharabat, R., Rana, N., Alalwan, A., Baabdullah, A. & Gupta, A.(2020), Investigating the antecedents of customer brand engagement and consumer- based brand equity in social media, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.53 No.1, pp.101767.

Alloza, A. (2008), Brand engagement and brand experience at BBVA, the transformation of a 150-year-old company, Corporate Reputation Review, Vol.11 No.4, pp. 371–379.

Anderson, J.C. & Gerbing, D.W. (1988), Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach, Psychological Bulletin, Vol.103 No.3, pp.411.

Arnold, M.J., Reynolds, K.E., Ponder, N. & Lueg, J.E. (2005), Customer delight in a retail context: investigating delightful and terrible shopping experiences, Journal of Business Research, Vol.58 No.8, pp. 1132–1145.

Bartlett, M. S. (1951), The effect of standardization on a Chi-square approximation in factor analysis, Biometrika, Vol.38 No.3/4, pp.337-344.

Bijmolt, T.H., Leeflang, P.S., Block, F., Eisenbeiss, M., Hardie, B.G., Lemmens, A. & Saffert, P. (2010), Analytics for customer engagement. Journal of Service Research, Vol.13 No.3, pp.341–356.

Bleier, A., Harmeling, C.M. & Palmatier, R.W. (2019), Creating Effective Online Customer Experiences, Journal of Marketing, Vol.83 No.2, pp. 98–119.

Bowden, J.L.H. (2009), The process of customer engagement: A conceptual framework, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol.17 No.1, pp. 63–74.

Brakus, J.J., Schmitt, B.H. & Zarantonello, L. (2009), Brand experience: what is it? How is it measured? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing, Vol.73 No.3, pp. 52–68.

Brodie, R.J., Hollebeek, L.D., Jurić, B. & Ilić, A. (2011). Customer engagement: conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research, Journal of Service Research, Vol.14 No.3, pp. 252–271.

Brodie, R.J., Ilic, A., Juric, B. & Hollebeek, L. (2013), Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 66 No.1, pp.105–114.

Brussels Research Groups (2019). Egypt’s Banking Sector Remains Resilient. Retrieved on May, 20 2020 from

Chang, S.-W. & Fan, S.-H. (2017), Cultivating the brand-customer relationship in Facebook fan pages: a study of fast-fashion industry, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol.45 No.3, pp. 253–270.

Chinomona, R. (2013), The influence of brand experience on brand satisfaction, trust and attachment in South Africa, International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), Vol.12 No.10, pp. 1303–1316.

Cleff, T., Walter, N. & Xie, J. (2018), The Effect of Online Brand Experience on Brand Loyalty: A Web of Emotions, IUP Journal of Brand Management, Vol.15 No.1, pp. 8–24.

Delgado-Ballester, E. & Luis Munuera-Alemán, J. (2001), Brand trust in the context of consumer loyalty, European Journal of Marketing, Vol.35 No.11/12, pp. 1238–1258.

Dessart, L., Veloutsou, C. & Morgan-Thomas, A. (2015), Consumer engagement in online brand communities: a social media perspective, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol.24 No.1, pp. 28–42.

Dimitriadis, S. & Kyrezis, N. (2008), Does trust in the bank build trust in its technology-based channels? Journal of Financial Services Marketing, Vol.13 No.1, pp.28–38.

Dwivedi, A. (2015), A higher-order model of consumer brand engagement and its impact on loyalty intentions, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 24 No.1, pp.100–109.

El Essawi, N. & Abd El Aziz, R. (2012), Determining the main dimensions that affect e-customer relationship management readiness in the Egyptian banking industry, International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management, Vol.6 No.3/4, pp. 217-234.

Flavián, C., Guinalíu, M. & Gurrea, R. (2006), The role played by perceived usability, satisfaction and consumer trust on website loyalty, Information & Management, Vol.43 No.1, pp.1–14.

Fornell, C. (1992), A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience, Journal of Marketing, Vol.56 No.1, pp. 6–21.

France, C., Merrilees, B. & Miller, D. (2016), An Integrated Model of Customer-Brand Engagement: Drivers and Consequences, Journal of Brand Management, Vol.23 No.2, pp.119-136.

Francisco-Maffezzolli, E.C., Semprebon, E. & Prado, P.H.M. (2014), Construing loyalty through brand experience: the mediating role of brand relationship quality. Journal of Brand Management, Vol.21 No.5, pp.446–458.

Gentile, C., Spiller, N. & Noci, G. (2007), How to sustain the customer experience: An overview of experience components that co-create value with the customer, European Management Journal, Vol.25 No.5, pp.395–410.

Gong, T. (2018), Customer brand engagement behavior in online brand communities, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.32 No.3, pp. 286–299.

Grace, D. & O’Cass, A. (2004), Examining service experiences and post-consumption evaluations, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.18 No.6, pp.450–461.

Ha, H.-Y. & Perks, H. (2005), Effects of consumer perceptions of brand experience on the web: Brand familiarity, satisfaction and brand trust, Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, Vol.4 No.6, pp.438–452.

Hair, JF, Black, WC, Babin, BJ. & Anderson, RE. (2010), Multivariate data analysis, 7th edn, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Helm, S. (2007), One reputation or many? Comparing stakeholders’ perceptions of corporate reputation, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol.12 No.3, pp.238–254.

Hollebeek, L.D. (2011). Demystifying customer brand engagement: Exploring the loyalty nexus. Journal of Marketing Management, 27 (7–8), pp. 785–807.

Hollebeek, L.D., Conduit, J. & Brodie, R.J. (2016), Strategic Drivers, Anticipated and Unanticipated Outcomes of Customer Engagement, Taylor & Francis.

Hollebeek, L.D., Glynn, M.S. & Brodie, R.J. (2014), Consumer brand engagement in social media: Conceptualization, scale development and validation, Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol.28 No.2, pp. 149–165.

Hollebeek, L.D., Jaakkola, E. & Alexander, M. (2018), Beyond the dyadic: customer engagement in increasingly networked environments, Journal of Service Management, Vol.29 No.3, pp. 330–332.

Iglesias, O., Markovic, S. & Rialp, J. (2019), How does sensory brand experience influence brand equity? Considering the roles of customer satisfaction, customer affective commitment, and employee empathy, Journal of Business Research, Vol.96 No.1, pp.343–354.

Jaakkola, E. & Alexander, M. (2014), The role of customer engagement behavior in value co-creation: a service system perspective, Journal of Service Research, Vol.17 No.3, pp. 247–261.

Janda, S. & Ybarra, A. (2005), Do product and consumer characteristics affect the relationship between online experience and customer satisfaction, Journal of Internet Commerce, Vol.4 No.4, pp.133–151.

Kabadayi, E.T. & Alan, A.K. (2012), Brand trust and brand affect: Their strategic importance on brand loyalty. Journal of Global Strategic Management, Vol.11 No.6, pp.81–88.

Khan, I. & Fatma, M. (2017), Antecedents and outcomes of brand experience: an empirical study, Journal of Brand Management, Vol.24 No.5, pp.439–452.

Khan, I. & Rahman, Z. (2015), A review and future directions of brand experience research.  International Strategic Management Review, Vol.3 No.1/2, pp. 1–14.

Khan, I. & Rahman, Z. (2016), E-tail brand experience’s influence on e-brand trust and e-brand loyalty: the moderating role of gender, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol.44 No.6, pp.588–606.

Khan, I., Rahman, Z. & Fatma, M. (2016), The role of customer brand engagement and brand experience in online banking, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.34 No.7, pp.1025–1041.

Klaus, P., Gorgoglione, M., Buonamassa, D., Panniello, U. & Nguyen, B. (2013), Are you providing the ‘right’ customer experience? The case of Banca Popolare di Bari, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.31No.7, pp.506–528.

Kumar, R., Novak, J. & Tomkins, A. (2010), Structure and evolution of online social networks.  Link Mining: Models, Algorithms, and Applications, Springer, pp.337–357.

Kumar, V. & Pansari, A. (2016), Competitive advantage through engagement, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.53 No.4, pp.497–514.

Kusuma, Y.S. (2014), Pengaruh brand experience terhadap brand loyalty melalui brand satisfaction dan brand trust Harley Davidson di Surabaya, Jurnal Strategi Pemasaran, Vol.2 No.1, pp.1–11.

Lee, S.A. & Jeong, M. (2014), Enhancing online brand experiences: An application of congruity theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol.40 No. (July), pp.49–58.

Lusch, R.F. & Vargo, S.L. (2006), Service-dominant logic: reactions, reflections, and refinements. Marketing Theory, Vol.6 No.3, pp.281–288.

Mollen, A. & Wilson, H. (2010), Engagement, telepresence, and interactivity in online consumer experience: Reconciling scholastic and managerial perspectives. Journal of Business Research, Vol.63 No.9/10, pp.919–925.

Morgan-Thomas, A. & Veloutsou, C. (2013), Beyond technology acceptance: Brand relationships and online brand experience, Journal of Business Research, Vol.66 No.1, pp.21–27.

Morrison, S. & Crane, F.G. (2007), Building the service brand by creating and managing an emotional brand experience, Journal of Brand Management, Vol.14 No.5, pp.410–421.

Nunnally, J.C. & Bernstein, I.H. (1994), Psychometric Theory. (3 ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill.

Nysveen, H. & Pedersen, P.E. (2014), Influences of co-creation on brand experience, International Journal of Market Research, Vol.56 No.6, pp.807–832.

Nysveen, H., Pedersen, P.E. & Skard, S. (2013), Brand experiences in service organizations: Exploring the individual effects of brand experience dimensions, Journal of Brand Management, Vol.20 No.5, pp. 404–423.

Oliver R.L. (1999), Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, Vol.63 No. (1), pp. 33–44.

Oliver, R.L. (1980), A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.17 No.4, pp.460–469.

Ong, C.H., Lee, H.W. & Ramayah, T. (2018), Impact of brand experience on loyalty, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, Vol.27 No.7, pp.755–774.

Oxford (2019). The Report: Egypt 2019. Retrieved on April, 5 2020 from

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. & Malhotra, A. (2005), E-S-QUAL: a multiple-item scale for assessing electronic service quality, Journal of Service Research, Vol.7 No.3, pp.213-234.

Patterson, P., Yu, T. & De Ruyter, K. (2006), Understanding customer engagement in services, Advancing Theory, Maintaining Relevance, Proceedings of ANZMAC 2006 Conference, Brisbane, 4–6.

Phang, C.W., Zhang, C. & Sutanto, J. (2013), The influence of user interaction and participation in social media on the consumption intention of niche products. Information & Management, Vol.50 No.8, pp.661–672.

Potdar, V., Joshi, S., Harish, R., Baskerville, R. & Wongthongtham, P. (2018), A process model for identifying online customer engagement patterns on Facebook brand pages. Information Technology & People, Vol.31 No.2, pp.595–614.

Pratomo, L.A. & Magetsari, O.N.N. (2018), Online Brand Experience: Drivers and Consequences, Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, Vol.9 No.2, pp. 218–227.

Prentice, C., Wang, X. & Loureiro, S.M.C. (2019), The influence of brand experience and service quality on customer engagement. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.50 No.1, pp.50–59.

Ramaseshan, B. & Stein, A. (2014), Connecting the dots between brand experience and brand loyalty: The mediating role of brand personality and brand relationships, Journal of Brand Management, Vol.21 No.7/8, pp. 664–683.

Ramaswamy, V. & Gouillart, F.J. (2010), The Power of Co-Creation: Build It with Them to Boost Growth, Productivity, and Profits, Simon, and Schuster.

Sawhney, M., Verona, G. & Prandelli, E. (2005), Collaborating to create: The Internet as a platform for customer engagement in product innovation, Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol.19 No.4, pp. 4–17.

Sikdar, P., Kumar, A. & Makkad, M. (2015), Online banking adoption: A factor validation and satisfaction causation study in the context of Indian banking customers, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.33 No.6, pp.760–785.

So, K.K.F., King, C. & Sparks, B. (2014), Customer engagement with tourism brands: Scale development and validation, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol.38 No.3, pp.304–329.

Solem, B.A.A. & Pedersen, P.E. (2016), The role of customer brand engagement in social media: conceptualisation, measurement, antecedents, and outcomes. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, Vol.10 No.4, pp.223–254.

Sprott, D., Czellar, S. & Spangenberg, E. (2009), The importance of a general measure of brand engagement on market behavior: Development and validation of a scale, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.46 No.1, pp.92–104.

Storbacka, K., Brodie, R.J., Böhmann, T., Maglio, P.P. & Nenonen, S. (2016), Actor engagement as a microfoundation for value co-creation, Journal of Business Research, Vol.69 No.8, pp.3008–3017.

Suh, JC. & Youjae, Y. (2006), When brand attitudes affect the customer satisfaction-loyalty relation: The moderating role of product involvement, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol.16 No.2, pp. 145–155.

Van Doorn, J., Lemon, K.N., Mittal, V., Nass, S., Pick, D., Pirner, P. & Verhoef, P.C. (2010), Customer engagement behavior: theoretical foundations and research directions, Journal of Service Research, Vol.13 No.3, pp.253–266.

Vivek, S.D. (2009), A Scale of Consumer Engagement. PhD Thesis, University of Alabama Libraries.

Wang, S.S., Lin, Y.C. & Liang, T.P. (2018), Posts that attract millions of fans: the effect of brand-post congruence. Electronic Commerce Research Applications. Vol.28 No. (March-April), pp.73–85.

Wirtz, B.W., Schilke, O. & Ullrich, S. (2010), Strategic development of business models: implications of the Web 2.0 for creating value on the internet, Long Range Planning, Vol.43 No.2/3, pp.272–290.

 Zhang, M., Hu, M., Guo, L. & Liu, W. (2017), Understanding relationships among customer experience, engagement, and word-of-mouth intention on online brand communities: The perspective of service ecosystem, Internet Research, Vol.27 No.4, pp.839–857.