Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Customer Loyalty (CL), Telecommunication Industry, Qatar.


This study aims at examining the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on Customer Loyalty (CL) within the Telecommunication sector in the State of Qatar, the market in Qatar consists of two telecommunication providers; Ooredoo Qatar and Vodafone Qatar. Moreover, the study examines whether selected demographics (gender, age, income level and educational level) play any role in moderating the potential relation between CSR and CL. In order to accomplish this, the study utilized a descriptive analytical methodology and a quantitative research approach utilizing survey strategy. Using personally submitted questionnaires, 476 filtered and screened questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS software. The study revealed that customers perceived CSR activities as an essential element for them and for the operating organizations as well, moreover their awareness of such activities was salient through their responses to the questionnaire in place, and as a result, CSR activities were found to have a positive direct significant impact on CL. As for the suggested demographics, gender, age, and educational level didn’t play any significant effective role in moderating the impact of CSR on CL. On the other hand, the Income Level slightly enhanced the original relationship between CSR and CL, as the higher the income level, the more CSR activities impact CL. Based on the results of the study, the researchers recommend that telecommunication providers should continue conducting CSR activities and focus more on ethical, economic, and environmental dimensions of CSR. Providers should also work on communicating their CSR activities to the public and customers to increase customer loyalty and maintain their market share. Recommendations for future research based on the results are also provided.

Full Text : PDF

  1. Aaker, D. A. (1996) ‘Measuring brand equity across products and markets’, California Management Rev. 38 (Spring), pp. 102-120.
  2. Afifah, N. and Asnan, A. (2015) ‘The impact of corporate social responsibility, service experience and Intercultural competence on customer company identification, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (case study: PDAM TirtaKhatulistiwa Pontianak west Kalimantan)’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, pp. 277–284. 
  3. Aksoy, L. (2013) ‘How do you measure what you can't define? The current state of loyalty measurement and management’, Journal of Service Management, 24(4), p356-381. Available at: 
  4. (Accessed: 19 September 2016).
  5. Ali, I., Rehman, KU., Yilmaz, AK., Nazir, S. and Ali JF. (2010) ‘Effects of corporate social responsibility on consumer retention in cellular industry of Pakistan’, African Journal of business Management, 4(4), pp: 475-485. Available from (Accessed: 18 December 2016).
  6. Astaryan, R. and SelaseAsamoah, E. (2014) ‘Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Activities and the Antecedents of Customer Loyalty in the Airline Industry’, Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice. Series D, Faculty of Economics & Administration, 21(32), pp. 5–17. Available at: 
  7. (Accessed: 19 September 2016).
  8. Aydin, S., Özer, G. and Arasil, Ö. (2005) ‘Customer loyalty and the effect of switching costs as a moderator variable’. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(1), pp.89-103. Available at: 
  9. (Accessed: 13 April 2017).
  10. Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  11. Barone, M.J., Miyazaki, A.D. and Taylor, K.A. (2000) ‘The influence of cause-related marketing on consumer choice: Does One good turn deserve another?’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), pp. 248–262. Available at:
  12. (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
  13. Berens, G., Riel, C.B.M. van and Bruggen, G.H. van (2005) ‘Corporate associations and consumer product responses: The moderating role of corporate brand dominance’, Journal of Marketing, 69(3), pp. 35–48. Available at: (Accessed: 19 October 2016).
  14. BQ-Magazine (2014) ‘Population of Qatarby Nationality’. Available at:
  15. (Accessed: 10October, 2016).
  16. Caceres, R.C., and Paparoidamis, N.G. (2014) ‘Service quality, relationship satisfaction, trust, commitment and business-to-business loyalty’, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 41, Issue 7/8, pp. 836-867.Available at: (Accessed: 30 April 2017). 
  17. Carroll, A.B. (1979) ‘A Three-Dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance’, The Academy of Management Review, 4(4), pp. 497–505. Available at: 
  18. (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
  19. Carroll, A.B. (1999) ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’, Business & Society, 38(3), p268-295. Available at: (Accesed: 1 December 2016).
  20. Carroll, A.B. and Shabana, K.M. (2010) ‘The business case for corporate social responsibility: A review of concepts, research and practice’, International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), pp. 85–105. Available at: (Accessed: 20 December 2016).
  21. Caruana, R. and Crane, A. (2008) ‘Constructing consumer responsibility: Exploring the role of corporate communications’, Organization Studies, 29(12), pp. 1495–1519. Available at:
  22. (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
  23. Chapple, W. and Moon, J. (2005) ‘Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Asia: A Seven-Country study of CSR web site reporting’, Business & Society, 44(4), pp. 415–441. Available at: 
  24. (Accessed: 19 September).
  25. Chen, F.-Y., Chang, Y.-H. and Lin, Y.-H. (2012) ‘Customer perceptions of airline social responsibility and its effect on loyalty’, Journal of Air Transport Management, 20, pp. 49–51. Available at: 
  26. (Accessed: 19 September 2016).
  27. Choi, B. and La, S. (2013) ‘The impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and customer trust on the restoration of loyalty after service failure and recovery’, Journal of Services Marketing, 27(3), pp. 223–233. Available at: (Accessed: 18 September).
  28. Chomvilailuk, R. and Butcher, K. (2014) ‘Effects of quality and corporate social responsibility on loyalty’, The Service Industries Journal, 34(11), pp. 938–954. Available at: 
  29. (Accessed: 18 September 2016).
  30. Clark J. M. (1939), Social Control of Business, New York , McGraw Hill.
  31. Crouch, C. (2006) ‘Modelling the firm in its market and organizational environment: Methodologies for studying corporate social responsibility’, Organization Studies, 27(10), pp. 1533–1551. Available at:
  32. (Accessed: December 2010)
  33. Davis, K. (1960) ‘Can Business Afford to Ignore Social Responsibilities?’, California Management Review, Vol. 2 Issue 3, p70-76.  Available at: 
  34. (Accessed: 30 April 2017).
  35. Del Mar Garcia de los Salmones, M., Perez, A. and Del Bosque, I.R. (2009) ‘The social role of financial companies as a determinant of consumer behaviour’, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 27(6), pp. 467–485. Available at: (Accessed: 26 September 2016).
  36. Dick, A. and Basu, K., (1994) ‘Customer loyalty: towards an integrated framework’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22 (2), pp.99-113.
  37. Franklin (2008) ‘Just good business: A special report on corporate social responsibility’, The Economist. Available at: (Accessed: 19 December 2016).
  38. Gallardo-Vázquez, D. and Sanchez-Hernandez, M.I. (2014) ‘Measuring corporate social responsibility for competitive success at a regional level’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 72, pp. 14–22. Available at:
  39. (Accessed: 19 September 2016).
  40. Ganiyu, R.A., Uche, I.I., and Elizabeth, A.O. (2012) ‘Is Customer Satisfaction an Indicator of Customer Loyalty?’, Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, Vol.2 No.07 pp:14-20. Available at: (Accessed: 13 April 2017).
  41. Gee, R., Coates, G. and Nicholson, M. (2008) ‘Understanding and profitably managing customer loyalty’, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 26(4), pp. 359–374. Available at:
  42. (Accessed: 19 September 2016).
  43. Heale, R. and Twycross, A. (2015) ‘Validity and reliability in quantitative studies’, Evidence Based Nursing, 18(3), pp.66-67. Available at: 
  44. (Accessed: 6 April 2017).
  45. Ipsos (2013) Eight out of Ten Australians Rate Corporate Social Responsibility as Important. Available at: Pdf (Accessed: 20 November 2016).
  46. Isaksson, L., Kiessling, T. and Harvey, M. (2014) ‘Corporate social responsibility: Why bother?’, Organizational Dynamics, 43(1), pp.64-72. Available at: (Accessed: 30 April 2017).
  47. Kaur, H., and Soch, H. (2012) ‘Validating Antecedents of Customer Loyalty for Indian Cell Phone Users’, Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 37(4), pp. 47-61. Available at:
  48. (Accessed: 13 December 2016).
  49. Kreps, Theodore J. (1940) ‘Measurement of the Social Peribrmance of Business’, Monograph No. 7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  50. Kim, S.-B. and Kim, D.-Y. (2016) ‘The influence of corporate social responsibility, ability, reputation, and transparency on hotel customer loyalty in the U.S.: A gender-based approach’, SpringerPlus, 5(1). Available at: 34d367c299de%40sessionmgr106&vid=0&hid=111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edselc.2-52.0-84987875305&db=edselc (Accessed: 19 October 2016).
  51. Lemon, K.N. &Verhoef, P.C. (2016) ‘Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey’, Journal of Marketing, Available at: 
  52. (Accessed: 13 December 2016).
  53. Maheshwari, V., Lodorfos, G., & Jacobsen, S. (2014) ‘Determinants of brand loyalty: A study of the experience–commitment–loyalty constructs’, International Journal of Business Administration, 5(6), 13–23. Available at: (Accessed: 14 March 2018)
  54. Mandhachitara, R. and Poolthong, Y. (2011) ‘A model of customer loyalty and corporate social responsibility’, Journal of Services Marketing, 25(2), pp. 122–133. Available at: 
  55. (Accessed: 19 September 2016).
  56. Marin, L., Ruiz, S. and Rubio, A. (2009) ‘The role of identity Salience in the effects of corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior’, Journal of Business Ethics, 84(1), pp. 65–78. Available at: 
  57. (Accessed: 19 October 2016).
  58. Martínez, P. and Del Bosque, I.R. (2013) ‘CSR and customer loyalty: The roles of trust, customer identification with the company and satisfaction’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, pp. 89–99. Available at: (Accessed: 26 September 2016).
  59. Mascarenhas, O.A., Kesavan, R. and Bernacchi, M. (2006) ‘Lasting customer loyalty: A total customer experience approach’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(7), pp. 397–405. Available at: 
  60. (Accessed: 19 October 2016).
  61. Matten, D. and Crane, A. (2005) ‘Corporate Citizenship: Toward an Extended Theoretical Conceptualization’, Academy of Management Review, 30(1), pp. 166–179. Available at: 
  62. (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
  63. Mohr, L.A., Webb, D.J. and Harris, K.E. (2001) ‘Do consumers expect companies to be socially responsible? The impact of corporate social responsibility on buying behavior’, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 35(1), pp. 45–72. Available at: (Accessed: 28 December 2016).
  64. Moisescu, O.I. (2015a) ‘Demographics-based differences in the relationship between perceived CSR and customer loyalty in the dairy products market’, Management & Marketing, 10(2), pp. 118-131. Available at: 
  65. (Accessed: 12 October 2016).
  66. Moisescu, O.I. (2015b) ‘The impact of customers’ perception of CSR on corporate brand loyalty: The case of the Romanian mobile telecom industry’, Central European Business Review, 4(2), pp. 21–30. Available at: (Accessed: 18 September 2016).
  67. Mulki, J.P. and Jaramillo, F. (2011) ‘Ethical reputation and value received: Customer perceptions’, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 29(5), pp. 358–372. Available at:
  68. (Accessed 19 October 2016).
  69. Muwazir, M.R., and Abdul Hadi, N. (2013) ‘A Multi-Ethnic Perspective on Corporate Social Responsibility in Malaysia’, pp: 1-12. Available at:
  70. (Accessed: 25 April 2017).
  71. Nyadzayo, M.W. and Khajehzadeh, S. (2016) ‘The antecedents of customer loyalty: A moderated mediation model of customer relationship management quality and brand image’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, pp. 262–270. Available at: (Accessed: 18 September 2016).
  72. Ooredoo (2016) Annual Report 2016. Available at: (Accessed 18 April 2017).
  73. Oxford Business Group (2017) Qatar's telecoms providers expand operations. Available at:
  74. (Accessed: 24 April 2017). Paulík, J., Kombo, F., and Ključnikov, A.(2015) ‘CSR as a driver of satisfaction and loyalty in commercial banks in the Czech Republic’, Journal of International Studies, Vol. 8, No 3, 2015, pp. 112-127. Available at: 14 March 2018).
  75. Pérez, A. and Del Bosque, I.R. (2015) ‘An integrative framework to understand how CSR affects customer loyalty through identification, emotions and satisfaction’, Journal of Business Ethics, 129(3), pp. 571–584. Available at: (Accessed: 20 December 2016).
  76. Pizzutti, C. and Fernandes, D. (2010) ‘Effect of recovery efforts on consumer trust and loyalty in e-tail: A contingency model’, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 14(4), pp. 127–160. Available at: 
  77. (Accessed: 12 December 2016).
  78. Porter, M.E., and Kramer, M.R. (2006) ‘Strategy & Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate SocialResponsibility’, Harvard Business Review. Vol. 84 Issue 12, p78-92. Available at: 
  79. (Accessed: 30 April 2017).
  80. Rafiq, M., Fulford, H. and Lu, X. (2013) ‘Building customer loyalty in online retailing: The role of relationship quality’, Journal of Marketing Management, 29(3-4), pp. 494–517. Available at: 
  81. (Accessed: 12 December 2016).
  82. Rashid, N.R.N.A., Khalid, S.A. and Rahman, N.I.A. (2015) ‘Environmental corporate social responsibility (ECSR): Exploring its influence on customer loyalty’, Procedia Economics and Finance, 31, pp. 705–713. Available at: (Accessed 19 September 2016).
  83. Salmones, M. del M.G. de los, Crespo, A.H. and Del Bosque, I.R. (2005) ‘Influence of corporate social responsibility on loyalty and valuation of services’, Journal of Business Ethics, 61(4), pp. 369–385. Available at: (Accessed: 26 September 2016).
  84. Shafei, I. and Tabaa, H. (2016) ‘Factors affecting customer loyalty for mobile telecommunication industry’, EuroMed Journal of Business, 11(3), pp.347-361. Available at: 
  85. (Accessed: 13 
  86. April 2017).
  87. Shin, Y. and Thai, V.V. (2015) ‘The impact of corporate social responsibility on customer satisfaction, relationship maintenance and loyalty in the shipping industry’, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 22(6), pp. 381–392. Available at: 
  88. (Accessed: 19 September 2016).
  89. Simmons, C.J. and Becker-Olsen, K.L. (2006) ‘Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships’, Journal of Marketing, 70(4), pp. 154–169. Available at: 
  90. (Accessed: 5 December 2016)
  91. Singh, A.S., and Masuku, M.B. (2014) ‘Sampling Techniques & Determination of Sample Size in Applied Statistics Research: an Overview’, International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, Vol. II, Issue 1, pp:1-22. Available at: (Accessed: 10 April 2017).
  92. Singh, J., de los Salmones Sanchez, M. del M.G. and Del Bosque, I.R. (2008) ‘Understanding corporate social responsibility and product perceptions in consumer markets: A cross-cultural evaluation’, Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), pp. 597–611. Available at: 
  93. (Accessed: 20 December 2016).
  94. Stanisavljević, M. (2017) ‘Does Customer Loyalty Depend on Corporate Social Responsibility?’, Naše gospodarstvo/Our Economy, 63(1), 38–46. Available at: 
  95. (Accessed: 14 March 2018).
  96. Talpau, A., &Boscor, D. (2011) ‘Customer-Oriented Marketing - A Strategy That Guarantees Success: Starbucks And Mcdonald's’, Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Series V: Economic Sciences, Available at: 
  97. (Accessed: 13 December 2016).
  98. Thomaidou, A. and Bellou, V. (2012) ‘Customers' Perceptions about Corporate Social Responsibility and the Role of Their Socio-demographic Characteristics’, MIBES Transactions, 6(1), pp. 90-99. Available at: 
  99. (Accessed: 19 October 2016).
  100. Uncles, M.D., Dowling, G.R. and Hammond, K. (2003) ‘Customer loyalty and customer loyalty programs’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 20(4), pp. 294–316. Available at: 
  101. (Accessed: 14 December 2016).
  102. Vodafone (2016) Vodafone Qatar Annual Report 2015/16. Available at:
  103. 18 April 2017).
  104. Wartick, S.L. and Cochran, P.L. (1985) ‘The evolution of the corporate social performance model’, Academy of Management Review, 10(4), pp. 758–769. Available at: 
  105. (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
  106. Xu, Y. (2014) ‘Understanding CSR from the perspective of Chinese diners: The case of McDonald’s’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(6), pp. 1002–1020. Available at: 
  107. (Accessed: 26 September 2016).