Adults, self directed learning, law, management.


An estimated 70 percent of adult learning is self-directed learning (Cross 1981). Self-directed learning has been described as "a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others," to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes (Knowles 1975).
    Mocker and Spear (1982) included self-directed learning in a descriptive model of lifelong learning based entirely on the locus of control for decision making about the objectives and means of learning. The model is a two-by-two matrix of learner and institution; the self-directed learning situation occurs when learners--not the institution--control both the learning objectives and the means of learning. The following situations occupy the other cells of the matrix: (1) formal learning, in which institutions, not learners, control objectives and the means of learning; (2) nonformal learning, in which learners control the objectives and institutions control the means; and (3) informal learning, in which institutions control the objectives but learners control the means of learning(lowry,1996).Self directed learning is very significant for adults and represent a very practical learning method for them, therefore this paper discusses the following issues: the concept of self directed learning, the importance of self directed learning for adults, educators role in self directed learning for adults.


Full Text : PDF

  1. Educause library,,retrived Desember 27,2016
  2. Grover,Kenda,2015,online social networks and the self directed learning experience during a health crisis,international journal of self directed learning,volume 12,number 1.
  3. Lowry, chery Meredith. Supporting and Facilitating Self-Directed Learning2003. Published by James Rhem & Associates, LLC. (ISSN 1057-2880)
  4. Smith, M. K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction andanadragogy', the encyclopedia of informal education, 
  5. Maurice Gibbons. The Self-Directed Learning Handbook Wiley, 2002.
  6.  Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Adult Learning: An Overview
  7. Stephen Brookfield, 1995 International Encyclopedia of Education Oxford, Pergamon Press
  8. Fisher, Thomas D.1995, Self-Directedness In Adult Vocational Education Students: Its Role In Learning And Implications For Instruction, Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, v12,n 1.
  9. Roberson Jr, Donald.Merriam, sharan B. The Self-Directed Learning Process of Older, Rural Adults Adult Education Quarterly August 1, 2005 55: 269-287